Introduction to the Basic Parts of the Human Brain

Lateral-view-of-the-brainThe three-pound, most complex organ of the human body is the controller of our behavior, intellectual, interpreter, senses and our motor skills. The brain, silently located in its strong bony shell and protected by fluid is the determinant of what defines us as humans.

Long ago, scientists and philosophers have been studying about how the brain works but still could not comprehend the mystery of its full function. However as for today, scientists have slowly uncovered its secrets and behavior for all mankind to see. This is just an introduction to the human brain in order for you to understand how the brain works and keeping these elements in the brain and nerve cells stable are important to healthy brain function.


The cerebrum is the largest part of the brain and it comprises of tools which are connected to the brain’s function. The cerebrum is divided into four parts: the temporal lobe, the occipital lobe, parietal lobe and frontal lobe. If you observe the cerebrum properly, it has two parts which is the right and left hemisphere these are linked by axons to send messages from each other. The nerve cells in the cerebrum also carry signals between organs and the nerve throughout the body. Let’s have quick information about the parts of the cerebrum:

  • Frontal lobe – this lobe is responsible for several features such as the creative thoughts, problem solving, mental power, decision, behavior, thoughtfulness, theoretical thinking, physical response, muscle movement, synchronized movements, smell and personality.
  • Parietal lobe – this lobe is responsible for comprehension. It is more on visual function, language, reading, internal stimuli, tactile sensation and sensory comprehension.
  • Temporal lobe – this lobe panels visual and auditory memories. It also includes speech and hearing abilities, behavioral fundamentals and languages. Temporal lobe is found in the cerebral hemisphere.
  • Occipital lobe – this lobe is found in the back of the head and is responsible to control vision.


The cerebellum is known as the “little brain” and based on evolutionary scale, it is said to be older than the cerebrum. The cerebellum is the part of the brain which controls the body function like balance, posture and coordination in which enables us to move properly while keeping our body structure. When the cerebellum is damage, it will not lead to paralysis but it will create disorders in movement, equilibrium, posture and motor learning.


The limbic system is the area that helps transmit emotions including the hormonal responses is instigated in this part of the brain. The limbic system includes the amygdala, hippocampus, hypothalamus and thalamus.

  • Amygdala – it helps the body to respond to feelings, memoirs and fear. This is a huge part of the telencephalon located in the temporal lobe which is visible from the outer part of the brain. If you see a lump in that area, it is called the uncus.
  • Hippocampus – the hippocampus is responsible for learning memory, it exchanges momentary memories into permanent memories which will then be stored in the brain in the long term. This part also helps individual to analyze and recall spatial relationship. This part of brain can be found in the cerebral hemisphere.
  • Hypothalamus – this portion is responsible for mood, thirst, hunger and temperature of the body. The hypothalamus also holds glands in which regulate the hormonal processes of the entire body.
  • Thalamus – this can be found in the center of the brain and it is responsible to help controlling the attention span, feeling pain and monitor response that travels in and out of the brain in order to keep updated with sensitivity the body is feeling.


Heartbeat, blood pressure, breathing and all basic life functions are all patented in the brain stem. The brain stem comprises of the medulla, midbrain and pons.

  • Medulla – the medulla or medulla oblongata is the most important part of the brain stem because it preserves the primary body function like the heart rate and breathing.
  • Midbrain – the midbrain also called the mesencephalon is consists of the tegmentum and tectum. These portion of brain helps control the body movement, vision and hearing. Meanwhile the anterior part of the midbrain is the cerebral peduncle which contains the axons that transmit messages from the cerebral cortex to the brain stem, and then voluntary motor function will have effect.
  • Pons – this is located in the hindbrain which connects to the cerebellum to assist in movement and posture. Added to that, the pons also interprets information that is used in physical analysis or motor regulator of the body. If you feel sleepy then it is the result of the consciousness that is going on in the pons.

The spinal cord can also be associated with the brain but it is considered as separate thing from the brain because it is an extension of the brain stem. That is why it also has its own sensory and motor pathways from the body to the brain.

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